First published October 2, 2006 - More info
The abnormal accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in the form of senile (or amyloid) plaques is one of the main characteristics of Alzheimer disease (AD). Both cholesterol and Cu2+ have been implicated in AD pathogenesis and plaque formation. Aβ binds Cu2+ with very high affinity, forming a redox-active complex that catalyzes H2O2 production from O2 and cholesterol. Here we show that Aβ:Cu2+ complexes oxidize cholesterol selectively at the C-3 hydroxyl group, catalytically producing 4-cholesten-3-one and therefore mimicking the activity of cholesterol oxidase, which is implicated in cardiovascular disease. Aβ toxicity in neuronal cultures correlated with this activity, which was inhibited by Cu2+ chelators including clioquinol. Cell death induced by staurosporine or H2O2 did not elevate 4-cholesten-3-one levels. Brain tissue from AD subjects had 98% more 4-cholesten-3-one than tissue from age-matched control subjects. We observed a similar increase in the brains of Tg2576 transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic littermates; the increase was inhibited by in vivo treatment with clioquinol, which suggests that brain Aβ accumulation elevates 4-cholesten-3-one levels in AD. Cu2+-mediated oxidation of cholesterol may be a pathogenic mechanism common to atherosclerosis and AD.
Luigi Puglielli, Avi L. Friedlich, Kenneth D.R. Setchell, Seiichi Nagano, Carlos Opazo, Robert A. Cherny, Kevin J. Barnham, John D. Wade, Simon Melov, Dora M. Kovacs, Ashley I. Bush
Original Citation: J. Clin. Invest.115:2556–2563 (2005). doi:10.1172/JCI23610.
Citation for this corrigendum: J. Clin. Invest.116:2828 (2006). doi:10.1172/JCI23610C1.
The Acknowledgments section was incomplete. The corrected Acknowledgments section appears below.
This work was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging (AG12686 to A.I. Bush and AG18679 to S. Melov), the Alzheimer's Association (to L. Puglielli and A.I. Bush), the National Health and Medical Research Council (to A.I. Bush), the Institute for the Study of Aging (to S. Melov), and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (to D.M. Kovacs and postdoctoral fellowship grant F32NS10874 to A.L. Friedlich). This work was also supported by a grant from the American Health Assistance Foundation. Tissue was supplied by the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center (supported by grant R24MH68855 from the National Institute of Mental Health). We thank Tobias Hartmann for helpful suggestions.
The authors regret this error.